When a person commits an act forbidden by law that has penal implications, such an act is called an offense. The person committing the offense is called the accused and the person against whom such offense is committed is called the victim. Generally, the State represents the victim in the court. However, the victim can also engage a pleader for the prosecution of the case with the permission of the court.
Whereas the offender/accused has to engage his own pleader/advocate for his defence. Thus a Criminal litigation is a litigation that involves the freedom of the offender/convict. Some of the instances of criminal acts are Theft, Extortion, Robbery, Dacoity, Murder, Kidnapping, Abduction, Rape, House trespass, cheating, forgery, perjury, offenses relating to coinage etc.